Senin, 14 Maret 2011

Teaching English by Flashcard Media

Teaching the target language need to develop the creativeness to build a strategy how to make the target language easier and can reside in learners’ mind for a longer time not temporarily. The learners guess, that English as a target language is so hard to learn. As a consequence, they are afraid to learn foreign language and surrender before make an attempt. The teachers of English language must afford to create the interesting and simple strategy to teach English. That strategy must make the learners attracted and enjoyable in learning English. Even if, the two words that attributed to the English language namely difficult and crucial can be removed from the learners ‘mind. In addition, the technology media is an alternative choice to smoothen the teaching learning process. Technology media can support the teachers’ presentation in the classroom. Besides that, the technology media will lend a hand to the students to understand the subject of English language. Not all technology media applying for machine. Technology media can be created by the materials that inexpensive and simple.  The simple media is more effective to teach English. Because it can stimulate the ideas that students have.  Besides that, the students will be more creative by using of the simple media. The  utilizing of simple technology media very proper if addressed to the young learners at the Elementary school through the Intermediate school. There are many simple media which is used in teaching learning process. One of them is flash card media.
One of the first learning tools schools utilize to help the learners especially the young learners to develop memorization skills, is the flash cards. Flash cards are very effective for learning English skills like vocabulary. However, they can also be used for developing more advanced skills as well. By using flash card media, the teaching learning process will be more effective. Elizabeth (2007:4) says that a good teacher must be able to teach English effectively. In order that the students will attend, listen to him and try to understand what he teaches in the class. So, Flash card will help the English teachers to teach English attractively. And the students will be interesting and pleasant in the classroom. The most important case, the students will be more appreciate with the English subject which the teacher teaches.
 But recently, most of the English teachers usually teach English subject monotonously. The book is the single media which they use. They teach English according to the book which contains the puzzled course. So, the students will be passive and do not creative. Because in this case, the students’ role just as imitators from the teacher and the role of the teacher more dominant in the class. As the result, the students feel bored in the class and they do not interest with the English subject anymore. Even if, the media that interested and can facilitate the students learning well very needed. Flash card media is the answer to those problems. The employing of the flash card can through a role game that make English subject interesting and easier.  Because, most learners feel that an appropriate lesson consists of traditional tasks with lots of writing and reading, listening to the teacher and speaking with the fellow partners in class during activities. When a lesson consists of a game, then it is not a lesson in the eyes of the young learners, it is greatly appreciated. Still, it is such a lesson that gives the teacher the opportunity to help the learners acquire new forms and lexis in the easiest and most effective way.
What is simple is usually more effective with the young learners who find it difficult to understand a long list of rules. Very often a teacher finds activities in course books that can easily be turned into a game. This game was based on a similar table in the course book for Primary School, used as a drilling activity. By turning flash card into a game, it becomes far more exciting and challenging. So with the using of flash card media, the English teachers will be able to create the exciting and energetic class. Besides that, the students will be more active and creative in the class.

Selasa, 04 Januari 2011

Teaching Noun Phrase by Short Story

A phrase is a part of sentences which does not express a complete thought. Abbas (2008:1) states that a phrase is a group of words that acting as a single part of speech and not containing both a subject and a verb. It is has function as a group to form a single unit of meaning. That means a phrase have functions as subject, object and complement. Phrase consisted of noun phrase, adjective phrase and adverbial phrase. They have differnt form and function in a sentence.

Noun phrase
Noun phrase is a group of words that indicate proper noun. The acts of noun phrase as a subject, object, and complement of a sentence. Noun phrase is a part of sentence. “ Noun phrase are supplied according to the sentence which is being generated.” ( walter, 1968:5). So, noun phrase can be formed by a sentence. A noun phrase can be producted from determiner and noun. Determiners can be categorized such as article, demonstrative adjectives, possesive adjectives, limiting adjectives and indefinite adjectives. There are examples of noun phrase in this short story below.

Captain Ben Fawcett has bought an unusual taxi and has begun a new service. The “taxi” is a small Swiss aeroplane called a “Pilatus Porter”. This wonderful plane can carry seven passengers. The most surprising thing about it, however, is that it can land anywhere: on snow, water, or even on a ploughed field. Captain  Fawcett’s first passanger was a doctor who flew from Brimingham to a lonely village in the Welsh mountains. Since than, Captain Fawcett has flown passengers to many usual places. Once he landed on the roof of a block of flats and on another occasion, he landed in a deserted car park. Captain Fawcett has just refused a strange request from a businessman. The man wanted to fly to Rockall, a lonely island in the Atlantic Ocean, but Captain Fawcett did’nt take him because the trip was too dangerous.
Resource:  L.G Alexander.1975. Practice and Progress. Longman.

From the above story, they are examples of noun phrases. Such as an unusual taxi, a new service, a small Swiss aeroplane, a ‘Pilatus Porter’, a ploughed field, a doctor, a lonely village, the Welsh mountains, many usual places, a block of flats, a deserted car park, a strange request, a businessman, the man, a lonely island, the Atlantic Ocean and the trip. They are different forms of noun phrase. To form a noun phrase, can put another adjective like descreptive adjectives or proper adjectives in between determiners and noun like a small Swiss aeroplane, a lonely village, a lonely island and a strange request. Whereas, of is used to combine a noun phrase to another noun like the example above namely a block of flats. A doctor, the man, a businessman, etc are examples of demonstrative adjectives form.And a example namely many usual is the indefinite adjectives form. So, the all examples above are forms of noun phrase in sentences that contained in short story.

Adjective phrase
Adjective phrase is a group of words which function to modify a noun as a post modifier or back modifier. The purpose of post modifiers for explain, indicate, analyze, describe and bounded a noun head.
Abbas (2008:16) states that the most general form of adjective phrases is the relation between adverbs of degree and descreptive of edjective thet combine together formed adjective phrase. Adverb of degree is put before descriptive of adjective. Adverbs of degrees are called as pre modifiers. Some of adverbs of degrees are so, too, really, very, extremely, quite, etc. Mentioned below, is a short story that contained some adjective phrases.

The Big Family in the Little House
Vladmir doesn’t know what to do. He has a big family. And he lives in a little house. He is not very happy. One day he goes to the town. He talks to a wise woman. “Please help me,” he says. “ my wife and I have six children. And we are really confused. We live in very little house. Eight people in a few rooms! We can’t live this way!”
The wise woman listens. She closes her eyes for a minute. She thinks that they home too small for lived. Then she asks,” How many animals do you have?”
“We have eight animals. We have a horse, a cow, two pigs, and four chickens,” says vladmir.“So nice, Go home now,” says the wise woman.” Take all your animals into the house with you.“ Our animals!” says Vladmir. He goes home and does what the wise woman tells him.” I feel extremely tired.” He says. The next week, he goes back to the wise woman.
“This is very bad!” he says. “ The animals eat our food. They fill all the rooms. They sleep in our beds.” The wise woman closes her eyes again. Then she tells Vladmir, “Now go home. Take the animals out of the house.
” Vladmir goes home. He takes animal out of the house. The next day, he goes back to the wise woman. This time he is so happy. “Thank you, thank you,” he says.” It’s very different without the animals. Now we can sleep. Now we like our house. Thank you for your help. You’re a very wise woman!”

Resource: Beatrice and Linda Jeffries. Basic Reading Power. Longman.

From the above examples, adjective phrases that position of pre modifiers before adjective. Such as very happy, really confused, very little house, too small, so nice, extremely tired, very bad and so happy. And the functions of adjective phrases are to modify noun. Too as pre modifier indicates that the pre modifier more than we require. So adverb of degree or pre modifier that indicates sense strongly and can’t be imagined about something. Very means we feel something into a high degree and can be imagined. Really is applied to add emphasis to the meaning of an adjective. And extremely indicates the feeling “very” sometimes refers to negative meanings.

Adverb phrase
An adverb phrase is a group of words which function as a single adverb to modify verb.  Some of the degrees are too, so, very, really, badly, happily, lazily, quickly etc. It is indicates that the degrees of adjective same with the degrees of adverb. But they have different function and meaning in a sentence. Mentioned below, the examples of adverb phrases in a narrative form.

 My close friend
My close friend is a nice friend. She always helps me whenever and wherever I need her hand. She never wants to hurt my feeling. So, she always speaks very carefully to me. She is so clever and she can speak English very well. We always go to school by bus together. In the bus, she sings a song so softly. The bus runs really fast and suddenly he tells me that he want to move in London school. I’m really shocked hear that.

From the above examples, there are several forms of adverb phrases such as very carefully, very well, by bus, so softly, and really fast. And the most general form of adverb phrases is the combination between adverbs of degree and another adverb namely adverb of manner and time. The adverb phrases always explained a verb. Like “ She always speaks very carefully.” Very carefully is an adverb phrase that function to modify “ speak” that indicates a verb.

The Differences between Gerund Phrase and Infinitive Phrase
Frank ( 1975:315) states that the gerund has function as noun head in the form of gerund phrase. The changed subject and object function as adjectival modifiers. Besides that, gerund phrase can form all that nouns. So, gerund phrase will indicate the nouns.
 Gerund is the –ing form of the verb is used as a noun while infinitive is formed of  ‘to’ or to+infinitive. Infinitive may have a subject or an object or both. In the infinitive phrase ‘subject’ is alive being like persons, animals, etc. besides that, ‘the subject’ can indicate a thing or an idea.( Frank, 1972:329).  they are examples of gerund phrases and infinitive phrases in an article below.

Being a very big city, London is very noisy; so wanting to live quietly, many people working in London prefer to live outside it. A small flat in London costs a lot of many; living out side, they can buy a little house at the same price.
People living outside London have to go to work by train, car or bus. They have to get up early in the morning and arrive home late in the evenings; but avoiding to stay in the noisy city, they can sleep better at night. Going to and coming back from their work, they can read interesting books or newspapers.
Being in the country, they can enjoy watching the grass and trees; and breathing the clean air, they feel fresh and healthy. On Sunday afternoons, they may cultivate their  gardens.
Resource: Ghani Johan. 2006. Reading and Translation. Third   edition.PP.96.092.
            Pustaka Pelajar Offset.

In the above article, there are examples of gerund phrases and infinitive phrases. The gerund phrases are being a very big city, working in London, living outside, going to and coming back from their work, being in the country, and breathing the clean air. The infinitive phrases are to live quietly and to stay in the noisy city. The –ing form of the verb used as a noun while ‘to’ form of the verb used as noun, adverb, and adjective.